Lessons 1-10
Lessons 11-20
Lessons 21-30

Kinesiology – Fundamentals

Kinesiology Fundamentals

Introduction to Kinesiology Lessons

The kinesiology lessons in this MBLEx Prep Course will cover the following topics:

  • Kinesiology fundamentals and concepts
  • Key terminology related to kinesiology
  • Concepts of muscle contractions
  • Joint structure and function
  • Range of motion concepts

The muscle review and bone review have been separated into their own sections to allow for a dedicated review if needed, and to allow you to easily keep track of which lessons you have completed. All of the details on muscle locations, attachments, actions and innervations can be found in the muscle review sections.

Key Definitions

Kinesiology: the study of the principles and mechanics of body movement. This includes the anatomy of structures involved, the physiological processes that create movement, the neuromuscular system, and the acquisition of motor skills.

Biomechanics: the study of movement of a living body, or literally the “mechanics of life”. This includes how muscles, bones, tendons, ligaments, and other structures and systems of the body work together to create movement. 

Physiological movement: natural and voluntary movements that occur at the joints of the body (e.g. flexion, extension, rotation, abduction and adduction).

Anatomical Position

Standard Anatomical Position: is a consistent position that gives us a frame of reference when describing a location on the body, or a direction of movement. Because this body position is constant, the relative position of body parts and features are easier to describe. For example, the head is superior to the pelvis. It doesn’t matter if the person is lying supine, prone, or standing on their head. The head is always superior to the pelvis.

(More about directional terms in kinesiology lesson 2)

Anatomical Planes

Anatomical planes are a set of 3-dimensional planes that divide the body in order to accurately describe the location of body structures or direction of movement. The axis of an anatomical plane runs perpendicular to the plane, and is a point at which motion through that plane revolves. There are 3 cardinal planes:

Frontal Plane

Frontal plane is also called the coronal or lateral plane. It divides the body into anterior and posterior. Performing jumping jacks is an example of moving within the frontal plane. The frontal plane has an anterior-posterior axis.

Sagittal Plane

Sagittal plane is also called the anteroposterior or AP plane. It divides the body into left & right. The mid-sagittal plane divides the body exactly in the middle. An example of moving in this plane is bending forward to touch your toes. The sagittal plane has a horizontal axis (medial-lateral).

Transverse Plane

Transverse plane is also called the axial or horizontal plane. It divides the body into upper & lower segments. An example of moving in this plane is left or right spinal rotation. The transverse plane has a vertical axis.

Main Body Regions

  • Cephalic or cranial (head)
  • Occipital (base of skull)
  • Cervical (neck)
  • Clavicular (clavicle)
  • Sternal (sternum)
  • Scapular (shoulder blade)
  • Dorsal (back)
  • Acromial (anterior shoulder)
  • Axillary (armpit)
  • Brachial (upper arm)
  • Cubital (elbow)
  • Antecubital (anterior elbow)
  • Antebrachium (forearm)
  • Carpal (wrist)
  • Thorax (chest/ribs)
  • Lumbar (low back)
  • Abdominal (belly)
  • Umbilicus (naval)
  • Inguinal (groin)
  • Pelvis (pelvic/hip)
  • Patellar (anterior knee)
  • Popliteal (posterior knee)
  • Vertebral (spine)
  • Pedal (foot)

Kinesiology is the study of the principles and mechanics of body movement.

The person is standing up straight, facing forward, arms at side, palms forward, thumb and fingers are extended, legs straight, feet slightly apart and turned out a few degrees.

Anatomy the study of the structure of an organism, including the structure of its muscles, bones, tendons, etc. Kinesiology studies how these structures are used to create movement.